The traditional method of using thermal combustion engines is a major cause of air pollution, as well as being less and less affordable due to rising oil prices.
The remedy to this situation is to resort to electric vehicles that do not emit harmful gases into the atmosphere when used, thus representing an ideal solution to create an eco-sustainable mobility system. In fact, using electric cars, we could halve emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (which encourages the phenomenon of global warming) improving air quality in our cities and protecting public health. Additionally, the use of electrical means also helps to reduce the emission of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, which are the main cause of the increase of respiratory diseases, especially in sensitive people like children and elderly people. Moreover, we must remember that the electric motor has a greater efficiency than the gasoline and diesel engines and therefore guarantees a considerable energy saving.
To these factors is also added the advantage of the quietness of electric vehicles, which helps to reduce noise pollution, which, when it is excessive, causes a number of psychological and physical discomforts (anxiety, stress, cardiovascular disorders, etc.) Thanks to all these environmental benefits, municipalities have established that electric vehicles can circulate freely in historic centers, in areas with limited traffic and when there are expected vehicle blocks to reduce citizen traffic pollution. However, to consider an electric vehicle really ecological, it is essential that the electricity with which it's fed comes from renewable sources.
Hence, it is necessary to encourage the spread of solar and wind recharging infrastructures, avoiding electricity coming from coal or gas power plants. In countries like Germany, Japan and the United States, these type of power plants based on renewable sources are already in use. Another aspect to consider is the need to efficiently dispose of the batteries (the lithium is toxic), which must be properly recycled, making sure to use the lithium content in them for different purposes. The use of electric cars also involves significant economic benefits. Indeed, resorting to the purchase of an electric car, we can save on insurance, maintenance costs (because they do not have mechanical parts subject to wear) and on recharging (you can fully recharge a vehicle for only 2-3 euros).
In recent years, car manufacturers have constantly been introducing new and more advanced models at cheaper prices (even if the price of electric cars is still higher than that of traditional cars). However, there are still issues that must be addressed before we can favor the emergence of sustainable mobility. First of all, these cars provide limited mileage (approximately 100-150 km), which makes them usable only for urban use. In addition, there is still no adequate charging infrastructure, which we would need to make it possible for people to recharge their vehicles at all times. In the coming years, the situation will surely improve, thanks to the significant investments expected by automotive companies (that will mean we can get smaller and smaller batteries with higher performance) and thanks to policies in support of electric mobility adopted by governments. As for Italy, a series of incentives were introduced for low-emission vehicles overall, to encourage the purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles, and the government has been expected the adoption of "coupons for mobility", for all those who decide to move around using ecological means. Finally, a "National Plan of infrastructure for recharging electric vehicles" was also recently approved, to finance the purchase and the installation of recharging stations for electric vehicles. So, the predictions for the future are very optimistic and in the next decade, sustainable mobility will have the success it deserves.